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Full text of "Text Book Of Mechanical Engineering"

CHAPTER III.

METALLURGY   AND   PROPERTIES   OF  MATERIALS.

IT will be well, so as to avoid repetition in succeeding chapters,
to digress somewhat, in order to consider the" properties, and to
some extent the metallurgy of the materials used in mechanical
engineering, omitting only the consideration of their strength,
which will be treated of in the second part of this work.

These materials may be classified as follows:- 

1.  Cast Iron.

2.  Wrought Iron.

3.  Cast Steel.

4.  Forged Steel,

5.  Copper.

6.  Zinc.

7.  Tin.

8.   Gun Metal.

9.  Brass.

TO. Phosphor Bronze.
IT. Muntz Metal.

12.  Manganese Bronze.

13.  White Metal.

14.  Wood.*

But we must first become acquainted with such chemical
elements as are necessary to understand the processes we intend
to consider. Such are: Carbon (C), Silicon (Si), Iron (Fe),
Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P), Manganese (Mn), and Oxygen (O).

Carbon is an allotropic element, that is, it exists under
different forms, which are: Charcoal, blacklead, and diamond.
The first is pure carbon, and so is coke, or nearly so. The
second is not lead^ and is also called graphite and plumbago \ and
the third is the crystalline form. If carbon is allowed to unite
with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide (COa), a gas. Carbonic oxide,
or Carbon monoxide (CO), is another gaseous combination of
carbon and oxygen.

A chemical combination is the union of elements in such a way
that they can only be separated by chemical action, while a
mechanical mixture requires only mechanical means (very often
filtration) to break it up.

* For further materials see Appendix II,, pp. 794-801.